What is Wind Energy?

Wind energy is the name given to the kinetic energy that the wind has as a result of its movement. This energy is converted into mechanical and electrical energy and is widely used in the past and present. The mass and velocity of the amount of air carried by the wind are the main parameters of wind energy. The faster the high-weight air mass, the more wind energy it contains.

Wind energy is a renewable energy source. It is a clean energy that does not emit any harmful waste to the environment. This energy was used mechanically in ancient times. Today, wind energy is mostly used in electricity generation. With fossil fuels harming nature seriously and increasing the effects of global warming and the depletion of the reserves of this resource, people started to generate electricity from renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, water, biogas, biomass and geothermal. Wind energy is also in an important position among today’s energy systems.

Some of the features of wind energy;

  • It has an endless resource.
  • It can work uninterruptedly as long as the wind blows.
  • It is a clean way of production.
  • It does not cause visual or environmental pollution.
  • It has long-lasting tools.
  • Their maintenance is easy.
  • The fuel of wind energy is the wind. And it is completely free fuel and no fee is paid.
  • While generating electricity with wind energy, no greenhouse gas or such harmful gases are released into the environment. Therefore, it is a completely clean energy source and clean energy production method.

How is Wind Energy Calculated?

A wind turbine is a system that converts the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical energy first and then into electrical energy. A wind turbine generally consists of a tower, generator, speed converters (gear box), electrical-electronic components and propellers.

The kinetic energy of air is converted into mechanical energy in the rotor. The rotational motion of the rotor shaft is accelerated and transferred to the generator in the body. The electrical energy obtained from the generator is stored by batteries or transmitted directly to the buyers.

The properties of the wind show temporal and regional variations depending on local geographical differences and inhomogeneous warming of the earth.

Wind is expressed in two parameters, namely speed and direction. Wind speed increases with altitude, and its theoretical strength changes in proportion to the cube of its speed. The theoretical power that can be produced from wind turbines is calculated as follows:

E = 1/2 x Density of Air x Area Swept by the Rotor x Cube of Wind Speed

Wind turbines can only start generating electrical energy at a certain wind speed. A wind turbine generates energy between cut-in and cut-out wind speeds. The cut-in speeds of modern wind turbines are between 2-4 m / s, nominal speeds 10-15 m / s and cut-out speeds between 25-35 m / s.

At a specified wind speed for each wind turbine, the power obtained from the system reaches the highest value. This greatest power is called the nominal power and this wind speed is called the nominal speed. In order not to damage the system, it is automatically ensured that the wind turbines turn to a stop after a certain wind speed. This maximum speed is called the system’s cut-out speed.

With today’s technology, it is not possible to convert all kinetic energy of air into electrical energy in wind turbines. With the value called the Betz Limit, a maximum of 56 percent of electrical energy can be obtained from the kinetic energy of the air.